Children with cochlear implants are more likely to get bacterial meningitis than children without cochlear implants. In addition, some children who are candidates for cochlear implants have inner ear anatomic abnormalities that may increase their risk for meningitis.
Because children with cochlear implants are at increased risk for pneumococcal meningitis, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend that they receive pneumococcal vaccination on the same schedule recommended for other groups at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease. Recommendations for the timing and type of pneumococcal vaccination vary with age and vaccination history, and should be discussed with a health care provider.
The CDC has issued new pneumococcal vaccination recommendations for individuals with cochlear implants. These recommendations can be viewed in detail on the CDC website: (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5909a2.htm)
• Children who have cochlear implants or are candidates for them should receive PCV13. It is now recommended routinely for all infants and children (see Table 2 in the CDC March 12, 2010 MMWR issue, at website above, for dosing schedule).
• Older children with cochlear implants (age 2 through 5) should receive two doses of PCV13 if they have not received any PCV7 or PCV13 previously. If they have already completed the four-dose PCV7 series, they should receive one dose of PCV13 through age 71 months.
• Children 6 through 18 years old with cochlear implants may receive a single dose of PCV13, regardless of whether they have previously received PCV7 or the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) (Pneumovax®).
• In addition to receiving PCV13, children with cochlear implants should receive one dose of PPSV at age 2 or older, and after completing all recommended doses of PCV13.
• Adult patients (19 and older) who are candidates for a cochlear implant, and those who have received a cochlear implant, should be given a single dose of PPSV.
• For children and adults, vaccinations should be completed two weeks or more before surgery.
• According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as of April 2009, approximately 188,000 people worldwide have received cochlear implants, including roughly 41,500 adults and 25,500 children in the U.S. In this country, there are 122 known reports of meningitis in patients who have received cochlear implants, with 64% of these cases in children.
• Meningitis is an infection of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. There are two main types of meningitis, viral and bacterial. Bacterial meningitis is the more serious type and the type that has been reported in individuals with cochlear implants. The symptoms, treatment, and outcomes may differ depending on the cause of the meningitis.
• Vaccines available in the U.S. that protect against most bacteria that cause meningitis are:
o 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) (Prevnar 13®)
o 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV) (Pneumovax®)
o Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (Hib)
o Tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135) meningococcal conjugate (Menactra® and Menveo®)
o Tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135) meningococcal polysaccharide (Menomune®)
• Meningitis in individuals with cochlear implants is most commonly caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Children with cochlear implants are more likely to get pneumococcal meningitis than children without those implants.
• There is no evidence that children with cochlear implants are more likely to get meningococcal meningitis, caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitides, than children without cochlear implants. Healthcare providers should follow the CDC immunization guidelines for routine meningococcal vaccination.
• The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is not routinely recommended for those age 5 years or older, since most older children and adults are already immune to Hib. Available information does not suggest that older children and adults with cochlear implants require the Hib vaccine. However, the Hib vaccine can be given to older children and adults who have never received it. Children under age 5 should receive the Hib vaccine as a routine protection, according to the CDC guidelines for childhood immunizations. Most children born after 1990 have received the Hib vaccine as infants.
• Healthcare providers (family physicians, pediatricians, and otolaryngologists) and families should review the vaccination records of current and prospective cochlear implant recipients to ensure that all recommended vaccinations are up to date.
Otolaryngology (pronounced oh/toe/lair/in/goll/oh/jee) is the oldest medical specialty in the United States. Otolaryngologists are commonly referred to as ENT physicians.
|1546||Account published of first documented successful tracheotomy|
|1806||Dutrochet introduces concept of vocal cord movement|
|1898||Carbon-type hearing aid first produced|
|1924||Otolaryngology specialty board (second such board in U.S.) is formed|
|1984||FDA approves first cochlear implant for marketing|
|1988||First wearable digital signal processing hearing aid produced|
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